Monday, 11 July 2016

Supply Of Carbohydrate to the Body

DEFINITION: Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of the chemical elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the same proportion as water.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATE
We classify carbohydrate as follows:

----Polysaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharide. These classifications are based on the complexity.

----Polysaccharides are the most complex forms of carbohydrate. They therefore must undergo a considerable amount of chemical changes during the process of digestion before they can be absorbed into the blood stream. Examples of polysaccharides are starchy foods like yam, rice aand bread. GLYCOGEN is a polysaccharides of animal origin as it is made in liver and muscles, and when extra glucose is needed by the body, it is reconverted into glucose.

CELLULOSE is another polysaccharide and is found in the cell walls of foods such as fruit and vegetables. It becomes tender when cooked but humans cannot digest it. However , it provides the body with roughage, which forms bulk in the intensine and stimulates bowel actions. 
Lack of excess of carbohydrate in the body can be harmful.
-----Disaccharides consist of two sugar units or monosaccride, whereas polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharides, Disaccharides therefore do not need to be broken down as much as polysaccharides before they can be used by the body.

Examples of disaccharides are sucrose found in sugarcane, and lactose which found in milk.
Monosacrides are the simplest forms of carbohydrates digestion, fructose, which is found in some fruit and honey and galactose, which is found together with lactose in milk.

THE SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES
The chief dietary sources of carbohydrates are :
  • Cereals e.g rice, maize, guinea corn, millet , wheat, barley and oats.
  • Starchy roots and fruits e.g yams, cassava, sweet potatoes , plantains and banana
  • Fruit and Honey.
THE FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES
The functions are :
  • They provide energy , which is used by the body for the heat and bases metabolism
  • Carbohydrates satisfy hunger 
  • They are bulky and cheap
  • Carbohydrates maintain the glucose level in the blood 
  • As long as carbohydrate intake is insufficient , protein will not be used to produce energy.
  • Indigestible parts of carbohydrates i.e cellulose , provides bulk in the intestine which aids in the elimination of waste products.




THE DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF CARBOHYDRATES
The digestion and absorption of carbohydrates starts in the mouth where the enzymes pryalin begins the conversation of all cooked starches into maltose. The food then passes to the stomach , where hydrochloric acids inactivates ptyalin. When it reaches the upper part of the small intenstine amylase , the enzyme in the pancreatic juice , converts all starches into maltose. Lower down in the small intenstine , the enzymes sucrose , maltase and lactase complete the conversation of the sugars into glucose which is the end product of carbohydrates of digestion.
The glucose is then absorbed into the venous capillaries of the villi in the small intenstine and conveyed via the portal circulation to the liver. In the carbohydrate metabolism , glucose combines with oxygen in the tissue cells and produce energy and heat. Carbon dioxide and water are the end product of this reaction between glucose and oxygen and are removed from the body as waste . Excess glucose is converted int glycogen by the liver and stored in the muscles for the muscles for use in times of need.
        If too much carbohydrate  is eaten frequently, a certain amount will be deposited as fats depots of the body and the individual becomes obese. As we have said , obesity resulting from this poor nutritional habit is a form of malnutrition.


EXCESSIVE SUPPLY OF CARBOHYDRATES

  1. Obesity 
  2. Diabetes Milieus
  3. Inadequate supply of carbohydrate may results to serious underweight 
  4. Inadequate supply of carbohydrate may also leads to disease called hypoglycemia

OBESITY
If there is excess carbohydrates in the body , this is converted to human facts and stored in the adipose tissues which can result in Obesity. The person looks excessively big and lumpish .
Note;The man body fat should be nothing less than 0-15%, while the woman body fat should be nothing less than 15-25%. Anything except this it is called excess fat. It is much in woman because of child bearing because after child bearing the pelvic girdle enlarges.


DIABETES MILIEUS
Excess carbohydrates can results to  diabetes milieus which is when the supply of sugar in the blood is too much. The person may become seriously sick or die.

INADEQUATE SUPPLY OF CARBOHYDRATE 
This may be result to serious underweight . The person will be skinning powerless and easily tired due to lack of adequate energy in the body.

INADEQUATE SUPPLY OF CARBOHYDRATE 
This may also leads to disease called Hypoglycemia
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