Monday, 11 July 2016

FATS AND OIL

It is easy to recognize that facts and oil are different kind of substance from carbohydrate . Although both of them are giving food, fats & oil are the most concentrated sources of energy .

DEFINITION : This can be defined as a compound of fatty acids glycerol that consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but the proportion of oxygen is higher than in carbohydrates.


Food may Contain 2 forms of fats

  • Visible
  • Invisible

Visible Fats - This that contributed to diet by food sources where the fats content is visible to the eye. Food in such category include the fatty part of the meat , water , cooking fats and milk.

Invisible Fats- This describe the fats contributed by food source where the fats present is not naturally visible to the eye. Food in this category includes lean meat, Bacon and egg.
The following are foods that contains fat & oil: Butter , Margarine , Coconuts, Sardines, egg , Groundnut, Meat, Melon, and Alfo cando, Pear.

Fat may be described as 
  • Saturated Fat
  • Unsaturated Fat
Saturated Fats- Saturated fats are normally solid at room temperature such as lard, butter and meat fat.
Unsaturated Fats- This remain in liquid states at room temperature for example cooking oil, They are considered more desirable than saturated fats because they are less harmful.

A fats is termed essential if t is absent will lead to specific deficiency diseases and if the body is not able to manufacture it and must therefore be obtained directly from diet.

SOURCES OF FATS & OIL
Food that contain fats&oil range from plant to animals , the animal sources include both land & marine animal. This include the fats of meats , lard , pork, mutton fats (sheep), Butter , Sardine oil, Cheese , Fish , Cold liver oil .etc.
The plan sources are olive oil , cotton seed oil , maize, peanuts , palm oil, Palm Kernel, Soybean.

FUNCTIONS OF FATS AND OILS
  1. They transport  fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. They are essential for the formation of nerve sheaths.
  3. They are needed for the secretion of bile and sebum.
  4. They lubricate the content of the intestine and facilitate the passage of food along the digestive tract.
  5. They line the skin , covering the skeletal structure , thus giving the body shape and keeping it warm.
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF FATS AND OILS

  • Chemical digestion of fats and oils begin with emulsified fat in the stomach, lipase in the gastric juice convert such fats and oils into fatty acids.
  • Bile in the duodenum emulsified the remaining fats from the stomach and lipase from the pancreatic juice converts the emulsified fats to fatty acid and glycerol. Fats take longer time to digest than carbohydrates
  • The lacteal in the villi of the small intestine are responsible for the absorption of fatty acids and glycerol. The lacteal coveys the fatty acids thoracic duct to the left sub-clavian vein to join the blood circulation.
  • Some fatty acids are considered to be essential because the body cannot synthesis them while others can be synthesized by the body(non- essential fatty acid).

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