Saturday, 25 June 2016

ORAL HEALTH

Oral health measures taken by the individual, the community, the various level of government and health system in the promotion, prevention and treatment (including rehabilitation) of disease of the teeth and the surrounding oral tissues.

It is also the process of influencing and health knowledge attitude, beliefs and behaviour toward oral health, hence preventing what is preventable, by enabling people to have more control over their own oral and general health. The mouth is the mirror of the body and should be well looked as the time.

                                                      The anatomy of the buccal or oral cavity






The oral cavity or buccal or mouth is made up of the following structures :

*The lips

*Cheeks

*Tongue

*Gums

*Palate

*Teeth

*Floor of the mouth

*Salvary glands and their openings

*Mucous membranes

*Jaw bones/muscles

*Jaw joint


                                                             Function of teeth

  1. Mastication- Each tooth is adapted to play a specific role. The incisors are for biting, the canines for chewing while premolars and molars are used for grinding
  2. Speech- The teeth help to understand words spoken by people .
  3. Aesthetics- The teeth provide some support and help in maintaining the shape of the face
                                                   Structure of the human teeth

The teeth are arranged in two orders in the upper and lower jaws. They are held in position by the gums. Each tooth has a crown, neck and root. The crown is in the mouth while the root is in the bone and the neck is joins the root with the crown at the gum. Teeth are of different shapes and size. 
           Two sets of teeth that erupt during a man's life time are called :

    (a) Primary dentition or milk dentition.
    (b) Secondary dentition or permanent teeth

   Primary Teeth
       This type of teeth are also known as secondary dentition. It is made up of 32 teeth, 16 in the upper and lower jaws respectively. If the mouth is divided into four , each part will now have :

2 incisors
1 canine
2 Premolars
3 Molars

                                                Diagram of incisors canine premolar and molar





                                         Different types of teeth in the permanent dentition
  
  Incisor--- These are teeth that appears in front part of the mouth . They are fan-shaped and are used for cutting food. The upper incisors are bigger than the lower incisors. 

Canines --- They are the pointed teeth at the corner of the lips. They are very strong teethe. They are used for tearing food.

Premolars--- These resembles molars, but they are smaller. They are founded and have a narrow table surface with two projections.

Molars--- These are large teeth at the back of the mouth. They have a wide table surface which makes them useful in grinding food.

                                                 Diagram of a Internal structure of Teeth


The crown of the tooth is covered by the enamel which is the hardest tissues in the body. It acts as protective covering to the tooth. Beneath the enamel is the dentine, this is softer than enamel . When dentine is exposed, one can feel sensation because it contains living cells. The middle of the tooth which is the neck contains the pulp. It contains blood vessels and nerve bundles hence when the pulp is exposed, severe pain may be felt . The roof surface is covered by a thin layer of tissue called cementum.

The Gums

     The gum s also called gingiva. It covers the jaw bones and supports the teeth in the bone. It is pink in color but may have a brwn color as a result of natural pigments in dark skinned people.

Common oral disease

     Disease and malformations can occur in any of the different structures of the oral cavity . The commonest disease of the oral cavity are :
  1. Dental Caries 
  2. Periodontal diseases
  3. Gingivitis
  4. Halitosis
  5. Cancrum oris
  6. Cleft palate

In our Next Topic i will be talking about Dental Caries , Kindly Read, Comment and share for others to benefits . If you need to contact Us , Kindly contact Healthissues52@gmail.com . Your feedback is our number one Priority.




       

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