Monday, 27 June 2016


Cancer is one of the genetic diseases. Cancer occurs as a result of consequence of pathological changes in the information carried by DNA. It is slightly different to other genetic disease due to the mutations underlying mainly somatic mutations.
            Breast cancer derived from epithelial cells that line the terminal dust lobular unit. The cancer cells that stays between the basement membrane of the elements that line the terminal duct lobular unit are called non-invasive. While invasive breast cancer is that cancer that disseminate outside the basement membrane of the ducts and lobules into the surrounding of the normal tissue. Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among women. It is common in the post  menopause women . The first sign of breast cancer is the appearance of small rounded painless lump in the breast, followed by the swollen lymph node in the armpit. There is possibility to be changes in the appearance of the breast, there may be possibility of puckering of the skin towards the region  of the nipple. At times, there may be feeling of discomfort at the breast region. Discharge may arise from the nipple.
          The causes of breast cancer are still unknown but some women are likely prone to breast cancer than the other. The identified contributing factors to breast cancer are ionizing radiation, chemicals carcinogen, benign breast tumors, history of family member who has breast cancer especially mother, sister or aunt, women who have first child after  30years old; women who are smaller those who have not breastfed babes , early onset of menstruation , late unset f menopause , the use of hormone replacement therapy, obesity ,excess fating the body , age ,gender, the use of alchol, diet and exercise.


  •  There may be discharge from nipple 
  • There may be changes in the breast.
  • Changes i appearance, puckering of skin Lump in the breast tissues.
  • There is possibility to experience compression of the skin around the breast 
  • There may be nipple inversion and swelling of the lymph nodes of the armpit


  • Check the breast every month
  • Avoid alcohol intake 
  • Check overweight and excess body fat
  • Do exercise 
  • Eat plenty fruits and vegetables 
  • Don't expose to pesticide and do not over use antibiotics.

  • Stand at the front of the mirror ; check your breast or noticeable discharge from the nipples
  • Place your hands behind your ha and press forward and look straight into the mirror to check the changes  in the normal shape of the breast 
  • Place your hand on your hips and bend forward and look for changes in the normal shape of the breast through the looking mirror.
Diagram for Steps for breast cancer examination

  • Raise  one arm up and examine the breast using our fingers to press from the flat part of the outer edge of the breast moving toward the nipple. Try to pay attention to the area between the breast and the armpit.
  • Squeeze nipple gently and watch any discharge .
  • Lie back on pillow under the shoulder raised one arm up over your head and pres the breast gently.

  • Treatment includes breast plastic surgery, breast reduction surgery or breast reconstruction surgery.
  • There must be X-ray examination of the breast 
  • Exercise may reduce  oestrogen level in the blood.

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